Heat dissipation refers to the intentional transition of thermal energy from a hotter object (such as a sensitive electronic device) to a cooler object. Heat dissipation is achieved with LEDs primarily by mounting them on high thermal conductive materials such as copper, aluminum and other alloys, or by enhancing the cross-ventilation of the air around LED heat sink to achieve quicker heat exchange.
Heat dissipation is the most critical process determins the performance of LED lights, becuase the accumulation of heat in an enclosure is potentially damaging to lighting diodes and electronic devices in LED driver. Overheating can shorten the life expectancy of costly electrical components or lead to catastrophic failure.
There’re four different ways to dissipate heat: Conduction, Radiation, Convection and Evaporation. The first three types are used most in practical LED light structure design.