Different Lighting Principles for Different Warehouses Types
Basically, the widely seen warehouses can be divided into categories as open air storage, indoor warehouse, cold storage and warehouse for hazardous chemicals. Lighting solutions should be based on the features of the warehouse type to guarantee the lighting performance, energy efficient, safety and even improving the working efficiency.
Open Air Storage
Open air storage areas are common in ports and factories, where large amounts of goods need to be stored and processed. Lighting plays an important role in maintaining good visual conditions and improving production efficiency. At this type of storage facility, considerations for shifting weather conditions have to be made, since lighting fixtures have to be installed in high places in order to ensure that large areas are illuminated, LED high power spotlights are usually the first choice.
Many goods, and most flammable materials, are stored in the enclosed environment of indoor warehouses. In such warehouses goods are concentrated in a smaller area, and goods and people frequently flow in and out. Following are some basic principles for indoor warehouse lighting with general purposes.
• Lighting should be based on visual requirements within given areas, utilize appropriate levels of illumination and light distribution, reduce unnecessary shadows, and enable complete visual and spatial clarity.
• Selecting light sources and lamps which limit glare and reflections improves working and safety conditions.
• Flashing lights should be avoided, since they may cause irritability and fatigue.
• Heat and ultra violet radiation have adverse effects on people and goods and should be reduced to every possible extent.
• In order to avoid overheating and fire hazards, lighting fixtures should be installed wherever ventilation ensures good heat dissipation.
• Selecting the appropriate color temperature and color rendering index of lighting fixtures enables a smooth, harmonious, and comfortable working environment for personnel.
• Additionally, warehouses should have emergency lighting installed, clearly indicating the location of emergency exits and evacuation routes.
According to different requirement of low temperature, cold storage can be divided into basically three types: higher temperature (-2℃～-8℃), medium temperature (-10℃～-23℃) and lower (refrigerator) temperature (-23℃～-30℃). In this type of storage, lighting needs to be waterproof, dustproof, and stable enough to ensure that it does not explode in the cold, damp environment of cold storage rooms, which are sealed and lack air convection.
Specific Requirements for Cold Storage Lighting
• Ammonia compressor rooms and rooms with high and low voltage power distribution must have independent emergency lighting able to sustain itself for no less than 90 minutes. These lamps should be explosion-proof with a recommended luminance above 70 lux.
• In cooling rooms, freezers, cold stock rooms, and ice rooms luminance should not be below 50 lux. In processing and packaging rooms, luminance should not be below 70 lux.
• Lighting should not be installed in close proximity to ceiling-mounted air condition units or drain pipes. Focused lighting should be put in aisles and passageways, while shelves should have more evenly distributed lighting.
• Power switches should be damp-proof and airtight and they should be installed outside of the actual room, away from the doorway.
• The cold storage room should be fitted with emergency lighting.
Warehouse for Hazardous Chemicals
Materials that are flammable, explosive, toxic, or otherwise hazardous are stored in special storage locations. In warehouses containing hazardous chemicals, lighting fixtures must be water-proof, explosion-proof, and corrosion-proof. High temperature lighting must also be avoided to prevent fire and explosions. Such warehouses typically use different grades of explosion-proof lamps.
In short, regardless of what kind of lighting is used in a warehouse, security is the most important aspect to consider. In order to prevent fire and explosions, the following must be taken into consideration: Movable lamps are not allowed; low temperature lighting must be used; goods should not be stacked directly under lighting fixtures, the vertical distance must be at least five meters; and the room must be equipped with standby emergency lighting.
The quality of lighting is of course also important to be considered. To the extent that it is possible, lamps should be installed in locations where they do not cause excessive glaring effects. Even better, they should be designed in ways that reduce glare, such as having a larger light emitting surface area or being fitted with light diffusing covers. When necessary, indirect lighting should be used to reduce the intensity of direct light rays.